We also discussed approaches to post vaccination symptoms particularly related to headache and CVST. There has been an excellent discussion of this phenomenon by the St Emlyn’s Blog and they include some guidelines from RCEM as part of the discussion.
We are very lucky to have her expertise and energy devoted to DevelopingEM and in March she led a fantastic group of Paeds EM specialists for the 2020 conference in Cartagena, Colombia.
You can check out all the 2020 conference presentations from April and her team (Nate Kupperman from UC Davis, Viviana Pavlicich from Paraguay, Camilo Gutierrez from Kids National in DC, Tanya Solana from Sick Kids Toronto, Laura Galvis from Colombia and Suzanne Beno also from Sick Kids Toronto).
Today April gives us a Canadian and global perspective on how the COVID 19 Pandemic is playing out in Paediatric Emergency Medicine.
In this interview we discuss the prevalence of illness, some of the options for treating the respiratory form of the illness and also describe the evolving knowledge on the inflammatory and vascular forms of the illness in children.
We think you will agree that Paediatric COVID is a fascinating and evolving situation.
Check our all the references April mentioned here.
Many of us have only a cursory understanding of Nicaragua and so here is some basic information on the country and its political situation.
Nicaragua is in Central America bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the South with both a Pacific and Caribbean coast.
Nicaragua has a population of a little over 6 million with 87% of this population being under 55 years of age.
60% of the population are urbanised with 1 million people living in the capital Managua
Life expectancy at birth
(Australia 82.7 / USA 80.30 / Costa Rica 79.20 / Honduras 74.60)
Maternal mortality rate
198 deaths / 100,000 live births
(Australia 6 / USA 19 / Costa Rica 27 / Honduras 65)
Infant mortality rate
16.5 deaths / 1,000 live births
(Australia 3.1 / USA 5.3 / Costa Rica 7.5 / Honduras 14.6)
Current health spending
8.6% of GDP
(Australia 9.2% / USA 17.1% / Costa Rica 7.3% / Honduras 7.9%)
1.01 physicians / 1,000 population
(Australia 3.59 / USA 2.59 / Costa Rica 1.15 / Honduras 0.31)
Hospital bed density
0.9 beds / 1,000 population
(Australia 3.8 / USA 2.9 / Costa Rica 1.1 / Honduras 0.7)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk- high for food or water borne disease (including bacterial diarrhoea,
Hepatitis A and Typhoid fever)
and vector borne disease (including dengue and malaria)
(Costa Rica- degree of risk- intermediate / Honduras- degree of risk- high)
The Pacific coast of Nicaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama in the early 16th century.
Independence from Spain was declared in 1821 and the country became a fully independent republic in 1838.
The dictatorship of General Zelaya began in 1893 but he was deposed with the help of United States (US) troops in 1909 marking the start of a prolonged period of US involvement in the affairs of the country.
Over the next decade the US established military bases in the country.
Guerrillas led by nationalist Augusto Sandino, after whom the Sandinista movement is named, campaign militarily against the US military presence and were part of the reason for a US withdrawal from the country in 1933.
Sandino was assassinated during peace talks in 1934 on the orders of National Guard commander General Anastasio Somoza Garcia.
General Somoza was elected president not long after in 1937, heralding a 44 yearlong rule by his family.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) is founded in 1961 and identified as a nationalist, socialist and anti-imperialist organisation, whose objective was the seizure of political power through the destruction of the bureaucratic and military apparatus of Somoza’s dictatorship.
In 1978 the assassination of the leader of the opposition parties triggered a general strike and brought together moderates and the FSLN in a united front to oust Somoza.
Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes during 1978 and resulted in a civil war that brought a civil-military coalition, spearheaded by the Sandinista guerrillas, led by Daniel Ortega Saavedra, to power in 1979.
The FSLN government redistributed the vast Somoza family land holdings and promoted radical changes to education and healthcare.
However, it was their anti-imperialist, anti-capitalist and pro Cuban and Bolivarian identity that attracted the ire of the US which systematically commenced a program to remove the FSLN from government.
The Australian journalist John Pilger visited the country at this time and his insightful documentary can be seen here.
This US effort to unseat the FSLN was centred on military support for the anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas, but also involved the mining of Nicaraguan harbours and the enforcement of an economic embargo against the country.
These measures were responsible for enormous hardship and violence within the country and were a contributor to the FSLN losing free and fair elections in 1990 where they relinquished power to the democratically elected opposition coalition.
What followed was a difficult period that saw a gradual reduction in paramilitary violence but also increasing debt and corruption.
After losing further elections in 1996, and 2001, former Sandinista President Daniel Ortega was elected president in 2006, 2011, and most recently in 2016.
This new Sandinista period is a vastly different period to the 1980s with election wins coming at the cost of compromise for many of the FSLN core beliefs.
There have been coalitions with ex contras, rapprochement with the Catholic Church (including support for a ban on abortion by the FSLN), and new accords with the IMF.
Whilst there have also been reintroduction of free education and literacy programs, as well as Zero Hunger programs, and corruption crackdowns, there has also been a reduction in public financial accountability, a freeze on the wages of teachers and health care workers (already the lowest in Central America) and suspect constitutional change allowing Ortega to continue as President beyond the usual two terms previously allowed.
Concerns about an increasing authoritarianism had been growing internally and were recognised by Amnesty International in 2018 when responses to protests against the government outlined Amnesty concerns.
These concerns are more expansively explained here but centre on the reduction of interaction with international agencies scrutinising human rights, an appreciable reduction in the freedoms of expression and assembly, the use of the legal system to prosecute political opponents, increased state sponsored violence and government targeting of journalists, human rights defenders and local NGOs.
In the last 2 years there have been mass protests over wages and social security changes that have morphed into general denunciations of the ruling party and system especially after the very violent responses to the original protests.
The political situation in that period has been a factor behind the nearly 90,000 Nicaraguans who have recently fled the country.
It is into this complicated and multifaceted situation that COVID 19 arrived in March.
Hector’s perspectives on the current situation are fascinating and we remain very grateful for his time and expertise.
If you would like to help in efforts to supply PPE and other equipment then please consider joining with DevelopingEM in donating to the efforts of FNE International.
An amazing time was had by all in beautiful Cartagena during DevelopingEM 2020 Colombia.
Apart from the wonderful attractions of this incredible place we actually had one of our best emergency medicine and critical care conferences ever with the latest evidence based material from some of the best presenters on the planet.
All this wonderful material is now freely available on our website as both powerpoint presentations and video recordings.
DevelopingEM 2020 Colombia was an amazing conference but held in truly historic times.
The Pandemic was declared on the last day of the plenary sessions and our lives have changed forever.
In this very different world we have wondered about the future of DevelopingEM and since the conclusion of the conference we have conducted two delegate surveys related to the Pandemic to help us determine if we should proceed with our events.
Our first survey was a health related questionnaire in which our delegates were asked about Covid 19 symptoms and test results in the first 14 days after the conference.
In total we had 127 responses.
26 respondents described at least one potential COVID 19 symptom and 1 respondent tested positive in this 2 week period.
So the event was a low but not zero risk gathering.
We were extremely lucky and don’t seem to have created harm in the larger scheme of things.
Our second survey focussed on whether the current pandemic dynamic should change our approach as a conference organising agency.
The results were very encouraging for Lee, Sanj and myself.
97% of respondents said we have to continue with DevelopingEM and indeed 90% agreed with the decision to proceed with the 2020 event.
There were some amazing comments generated from the survey that have buoyed our spirits at this difficult time.
” DevelopingEM is an amazing and unique gathering of EM folks with similar interests and a strong desire to give back something greater than themselves.”
” We must survive “
” DevelopingEM is a wonderfully compelling conference. Supporting international learning and bringing together the best and the brightest — its what we need to do, now more than ever. “
” Because this too shall pass and needs will continue. “
Our DevelopingEM family is truly amazing!
You have confirmed our thought that we should continue with DevelopingEM as a face to face international event.
Many meetings could probably continue virtually but it is people meeting people face to face that is at the core of DevelopingEM.
So we have already started preparing for 2022 and our African partners are keen to collaborate- we will have more to tell you soon!!